The country’s new Constitution thus includes a series of amendments which respond to the demands of popular Hirak, such as the renewal of presidential term once, the reduction of the president of the Republic’s prerogatives to prevent autocratic drifts, as well as the separation of powers and the restoration of their balance.

Such change will spoil the schemes of those who have long breached the law, under the protection of their immunity and power.

In terms of separation and balance of powers, the Constitution provides for the renewal of the presidential term once and the establishment of the position of Chief of the Government.

So, the “government is chaired by a Prime Minister when the legislative elections result in a presidential majority” and by “a Chief of Government when the legislative elections result in a parliamentary majority.”

It also provides for the limitation of the parliamentarian term, the abolition of the right to issue orders during the parliamentary break and the obligation for the Government to elaborate bills and the texts of application.

Strengthening the independence of the judiciary is one of key amendments to the Constitution, through the constitutionalization of the principle of irremovability of judges.

In this regard, Minister of Justice and the Attorney General at the Supreme Court are no longer members of the Superior Council of the Judiciary, in which sit two representatives of the magistrates’ union and the president of the National Council of Human Rights.

The Constitution also provides for the establishment of a Constitutional Court instead of the Constitutional Council.

It also constitutionalizes the Authority for Transparency, Prevention and the Fight against Corruption and the National Independent Authority of Elections.

The document establishes the National Economic, Social and Environmental Council as a “framework for dialogue, consultation, proposal, foresight and analysis in the economic, social and environmental field, coming under the authority of the President of the Republic.”

In addition, it establishes a National Civil Society Observatory, as a consultative body placed under the supervision of the President of the Republic, which “issues opinions and recommendations relating to the concerns of civil society” and an Algerian Academy of Sciences and Technologies, as an “independent scientific and technological body.”

In its preamble, the new Constitution, for the first time, constitutionalizes the popular movement of February 22, 2019, the prohibition of hate speech and discrimination and the inclusion of Tamazight as a non-reviewable provision.

It also sets out Algeria’s participation in peacekeeping operations under the UN auspices, more particularly in the region.

As a reminder, the Algerians approved the new Constitution on November 1, 2020 by referendum.